Canada (French: le Canada), historically the Dominion of Canada, is the northernmost country in North America. It is a decentralized federation of 10 provinces and 3 territories, governed as a constitutional monarchy and formed in 1867 through an act of Confederation. It is bordered by the United States to the south and to the northwest. The country stretches from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west. Canada also reaches the Arctic Ocean in the north where Canada's territorial claim extends to the North Pole.